Glossary

Aftermarket Parts: Automotive replacement parts that were not made by the original equipment manufacturer.

Air-drying: The process of drying fully during exposure to air at normal temperatures.

Basecoat ( BC ) / Clear: A paint system in which the color effect is given by a highly pigmented basecoat. Gloss and durability are given by a subsequent clearcoat.

Frame Rack: A heavy metal platform used to restore a vehicle’s structural geometry to factory specifications. This is done by securing a portion of the vehicle to the platform, then pulling appropriate areas of the vehicle into place using special clamps, chains and hydraulic winches. Alternate Term(s): Frame Machine

Betterment: Term used to describe an item replaced due to an accident that has some wear. The practice is often applied to tires and batteries that are several years old. If a battery has used up 3/4 of its life, the Insurance company will pro-rate the item’s cost and in this case will pay 1/4 of the cost to replace the battery and will ask the insured or claimant to pay the remaining 3/4. The premise being that the Insurance Company is only obligated to return the vehicle to its pre-accident condition.

Chip Guard: A chip resistant, protective coating normally applied to lower panels to avoid sharp stones etc. chipping the paint finish.

Chipping: The removal of paint from a substrate by means of impact of sharp stones etc.

Clear or Clearcoat: The clearcoat imparts gloss and protection to a basecoat clearcoat system. It is essentially a pigment-free paint.

Coat: A single layer of paint on a surface.

Compounding: The action of using an abrasive polishing material either by hand or by machine. Alternate Term(s): Polishing

Corrosion: Corrosion is a chemical process that starts with iron, oxygen and moisture (electrolyte) to form the chemical compound ferrous oxide, more commonly known as rust. As rust begins to spread, it eats away at the steel, making it progressively weaker.

Corrosion Protection: Corrosion protection involves using a variety of materials and applications to protect steel body parts from rusting so that your vehicle will have the same paint warranty and corrosion protection as applied by the vehicle manufacturer.

Degreasing: The removal from the substrate of contaminants which would otherwise give rise to surface defects and performance failures through poor adhesion.

Detailing: Final cleaning both inside and outside of vehicle, application of pinstripes, removal of overspray from under the hood, trunk lids etc. as well as polishing.

Direct Gloss (DG): A topcoat paint which contains pigment and resin, and gives the required gloss level without the need of the application of a clearcoat. A DG Paint film has good weathering and durability characteristics.

DRP: Acronym for Direct Repair Program. These programs often involve a contractual agreement between an Autobody Repair Center and an Insurance Company. For the most part, the agreements set the rules of repair and standardized procedures such as warranties, billing practices and record keeping.

Down-Draft Paint Booth: Spraying of sealer, basecoat, and clearcoat is done in a spray booth to protect both the workers and the paint job. The most effective paint booths are downdraft booths which supply filtered air to the booth through its ceiling, and exhaust the chemical-containing air to the outside after it passes through filters below the grating on the floor. In these booths the air is directed downward, and the paint vapors and overspray are carried downward. So, they do not even pass by the painter’s breathing zone.

Drying: The process of change of a coating from the liquid to the solid state by evaporation of solvent, chemical reaction of the binding medium, or a combination of these processes. When drying takes place during exposure to air at normal temperatures, it is called ‘air-drying’; if it can be accelerated by the application of a moderate degree of heat it is called ‘Force-drying’ (or Low-bake), as distinct from High-bake. Alternate Term(s): Binder, Air-drying, Force-drying, Stoving, Low-bake, High-bake

Edge-to-edge repair: A term denoting a complete panel repair as opposed to a touch-up or spot repair. Alternate Term(s): Spot repair

Enamel: A topcoat paint which forms a film by chemical crosslinking of its component molecules during the cure.

FEA: Acronym for Front End Alignment. Generally appears as a line item on a repair estimate or repair order. It will sometimes be accompanied by 4-W or 4-Wheel alignment. This simply means that the vehicle needs to have all wheels aligned.

Gloss: The degree to which a painted surface possesses the property of reflecting light in a mirror-like manner.

Hazardous Waste: Any unusable by-product derived from the repair and/or painting process that cannot be disposed of through normal waste disposal streams. These products can be potentially harmful to the environment and require special handling as well as professional disposal. Federal, State and Local laws apply and may differ in their scope.

LKQ: Acronym for Like Kind and Quality. Refers to a used part salvaged from another vehicle. It is inspected by the seller and re-inspected by the shop upon receipt and accepted if it is deemed appropriate.

Masking: Temporary covering of areas not to be painted.

Metallic: A term used for finishes incorporating fine metallic particles, usually aluminum, in the paint.

Mica: A naturally occurring mineral, based on silica, which after treatment, is used as an effect pigment in coatings. Their special property is that light falling on a mica particle, depending on the angle of illumination, reflects the light with a change in color. Because of this they are sometimes referred to as pearls. Alternate Term(s): Pearl

Motor manufacturer’s primer: An undercoat system applied by the manufacturer to the metal surface of a commercial vehicle or to new automobile panel parts to give protection during transit, storage, etc. and which, depending on its type, age and condition, may be able to support the finishing system. It may consist of more than just a simple primer coat. Alternate Term(s): OE Primer

Pearlescent: Paint containing special iridescent pigments commonly referred to as “pearls.” Pearl pigments impart a colored sparkle to the finish which works to create depth of color. Pearlescent paints can be two stages in nature (pearl base color + clearcoat) or 3 stage in nature (basecoat + pearl midcoat + clearcoat).
Alternate Term(s): Mica

Pigment: The coloring matter in paint. A pigment is different from a dye in that a pigment is insoluble in the media in which it is used.

Prep: The process of washing, degreasing and lightly abrading a panel prior to applying paint. Alternate Term(s): Prep Work

Pretreatment (metal): The chemical treatment of unpainted metal surfaces before painting, for enhanced adhesion and corrosion resistance.

Primer: The first layer of a coating system. Applied to an unpainted surface. Its’ role is to protect the substrate and to prepare it for the application of a surfacer or topcoat. It must therefore have above all, excellent adhesion to the substrate and to the coating which will follow.

Primer-Sealer: An undercoat which improves the adhesion of the topcoat, and which seals old painted surfaces that have been sanded.

Primer/surfacer primer/filler: A pigmented composition which acts as a primer and at the same time has filling properties such that it may be sanded to provide a smooth surface for the color coat that is to follow.

Putty: Material used to fill imperfections in a substrate. Applied with a squeegee and sanded smooth.

R&I: Acronym for Remove and Install. Refers to a part removed from the customer’s damaged vehicle to be saved and reinstalled after the repair has been completed.

R&R: Acronym for Remove and Replace. Refers to a part removed from the customer’s damaged vehicle that cannot be acceptably repaired. It is replaced with a new part.

Repair Authorization: The point at which a Consumer authorizes the repair to their vehicle, and in some cases contingent upon the Insurance Company settlement process.

Rubbing compound: An abrasive paste that smoothes and polishes paint films.
Alternate Term(s): Polishing compound

Sanding: An abrasive process used to level a coated surface prior to the application of a further coat.

Sealer: An undercoat which improves the adhesion of the topcoat, and which seals old painted surfaces that have been sanded.

Solid color: A coating which contains colored pigments only, i.e., does not contain pigments such as aluminums and micas.

Solvent: A liquid, usually volatile, which is used to reduce viscosity. This is essential in both manufacturing and application processes. Solvents evaporate during application and drying of paint and therefore do not become a part of the dried film. In conventional coatings the solvents are organic compounds: Alcohols, Esters and Ketones. Waterborne systems use a mix of organic solvents with water.

Substrate: The uncoated/unpainted surface.

Supplement: Additional repairs needed to complete the repairs that were not identified on the original estimate.

Tack rag: Cotton fabric, such as cheesecloth, lightly impregnated with a resin, used to remove dust from a surface after rubbing down and prior to further painting. Tack rags should be stored in an airtight container to conserve their tackiness.

Tape marking: The imprint caused by applying masking tape on to a newly-applied paint film before it has time to harden.

Thinner: A blend of volatile organic solvents added to the paint to reduce it to the correct viscosity for application.

Three Coat color: A topcoat color which consists of 3 parts, a basecoat, a midcoat and a clear. Alternate Term(s): Tri-coat

Tint and Blend: The process of mixing toners to match the existing paint finish, then blending or overlapping the color into the adjacent panel to avoid color match problems.

Tinter: Any colored pigment or paint mixture used to make small adjustments in color or to the mix the color in the first place from a mixing scheme. Alternate Term(s): Base color

Top coat: The final layers of a coating system whose role is primarily decorative. However the topcoat often imparts protection to ultra violet light present in sunlight.

Touch-up: A localized repair usually confined to the smallest area possible (for example, repairs due to stone chips damage).

Two-pack: A paint or lacquer supplied in two parts which must be mixed together in the correct proportions before use. The mixture will then remain usable for a limited period only.

U.V. Absorbers: Chemicals added to paint to absorb Ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight.

Ultra Violet Light: That portion of the spectrum which is largely responsible for the degradation of paint films. Invisible to the eye, causes sunburn.

Undercoats: A first coat; primer, sealer or surfacer.

Unibody: The structural support found in most late model vehicles.

VIN: Acronym for Vehicle Identification Number. This is a unique number that identifies your vehicle. Although its primary purpose is to identify your vehicle, it often contains important information concerning the equipment and options that were installed on your vehicle at the factory. This information allows the Repair Center to order the correct parts for your vehicle. Any professional estimate or Repair Order will have this number on it.